SAARC Countries

Kids opted for countries from The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and tried to capture following points

  1. Demographics
  2. Kind of Political & Governance System
  3. Political Past
  4. Current Political Environment
  5. Economic Overview [ GDP / Per capita income / main source of revenue ]

Burma

Burma Now Known As Myanmar Is A Southeast Asian Country with A Population Of About 54.4 Million People. The Burmese System Of Governance Is A Parliamentary Republic, Which Is A Republic That Operates Under A Parliamentary System Of Government. However On February 1st 2021, The Prime Minister Was Toppled In A Military Coup. Resulting In A Dictatorial System Of Governance. Currently Burma Is Ruled As A Dictatorship Of Which The Head Of State Is: Min Aung Hlaing.

The British Rule On Burma Lasted From 1824-1948, During This Time It Was Incorporated Into The British Raj (British India) but In 1937 It Separated From British India And Became A Crown Colony.

Japanese Occupation

In 1942 The Japanese Invaded And Occupied Burma With Some Help From The Japanese-trained Burma Independence Army, Which Later Transforms Itself Into The Anti-fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL) And Resists Japanese Rule. In 1945 Britain “Liberated” Burma From Japanese Occupation With Help From The AFPFL, Led By Aung San. In 1947 Aung San And Six Members Of His Interim Government Assassinated By Political Opponents Led By U Saw, A Nationalist Rival Of Aung San’s. U Nu, Foreign Minister In Ba Maw’s Government, Which Ruled Burma During The Japanese Occupation, Asked To Head The AFPFL And The Government.

Independence & First Dictatorship

  • Burma Gains Its Independence On January 4th 1948 With U Nu As PM
  • Soon After Burma, India, Yugoslavia And Indonesia Co-Founded The Movement Of Non-Aligned States
  • Burma Becomes A single Party State Lead By The Military
  • Thing Like Riots, Repressions And Thwarted Elections Happened , soon In 1984 The Military Rule Came To An End.

Economy

Demographics

Bhutan

Bhutan, a Buddhist kingdom on the Himalayas’ eastern edge, is known for its monasteries, fortresses (or dzongs) and dramatic landscapes that range from subtropical plains to steep mountains and valleys. In the High Himalayas, peaks such as 7,326m Jomolhari are popular trekking destinations. Paro Taktsang monastery (also known as Tiger’s Nest) clings to cliffs above the forested Paro Valley.

Demographics [ 2019-2022 ]

The current population of Bhutan in 2022 is 787,941, a 1.03% increase from 2021. The population of Bhutan in 2021 was 779,898, a 1.07% increase from 2020. The population of Bhutan in 2020 was 771,608, a 1.12% increase from 2019. The population of Bhutan in 2019 was 763,092.

Political System

A unitary state with parliamentary system governed by constitutional monarchy .

Justice

Bhutan’s legal code is based upon traditional Buddhist precepts. In 1968 the judicial system was separated from the executive and legislative branches of government, and a high court was established, primarily to hear appeals from district-level courts. The Supreme Court was established in 2009 as the judicial body with the authority to interpret the newly adopted constitution, and it also hears appeals from the High Court.

Political process

Political parties were illegal in Bhutan until mid-2007. In April of that year the ban was lifted by royal decree in anticipation of the general elections that would establish Bhutan as a parliamentary democracy. The first legal party to be registered was the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), followed shortly thereafter by the Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party DPT. These two parties were the sole contestants in the subsequent elections of 2007 and 2008; five parties contested the 2013 elections and four contested the 2018 elections. By late 2018 three parties had held the reins of government: the PDP, the DPT, and the newer Bhutan United Party.

Local government

For administrative purposes, Bhutan is divided into some 20 dzongkhags (districts), each with a district officer who is responsible to the minister of home affairs. Some of the districts are divided further into dungkhags (subdistricts). Each dzongkhag and dungkhag has several gewogs (groups of villages). Gewogs are governed by elected councils, which are led by a chairperson and a deputy chairperson, with five-year terms.

What means parliamentary system ?

Parliamentary system, democratic form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the parliament (legislature) forms the government, its leader becoming prime minister.

What is meant by unitary state?

Unitary state, a system of political organization in which most or all of the governing power resides in a centralized government, in contrast to a federal state.

What is constitutional monarchy?

Constitutional monarchy, system of government in which a monarch (see monarchy) shares power with a constitutionally organized government. The monarch may be the de facto head of state or a purely ceremonial leader. The constitution allocates the rest of the government’s power to the legislature and judiciary.

GDP of Bhutan 2021 and 2022

GDP in Bhutan reached to 2.20 USD Billion by the end of 2021 and it should reach up to 2.50 USD Billion by the end of 2022.

What does GDP mean?

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most commonly used measure for the size of an economy. GDP can be compiled for a country, a region (such as Venice in Italy or Paris in France), or for several countries combined, as in the case of the European Union (EU).

Bangladesh

Bangladesh (officially called People’s Republic of Bangladesh) is a country in South Asia. It is next to the North-east Indian provincial regions of India, which converges with Southeast Asia to the east. Its full name is The People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The capital and the largest city is Dhaka . Bangladesh is surrounded on all three sides by the Republic of India (Bharat), and Myanmar (Burma) on the south-eastern corner, it is near the People’s Republic of China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal

History

  • The delta and surrounding hills has been inhabited for hundreds of generations (thousands of years).
  • The area supported agriculture very early on. About 500 BC there was a shift to growing rice.
  • This led to the development of urban areas. Because there were no stone quarries in the area houses were built of wood and mud (including adobe).
  • Because of the monsoon climate very little evidence of the earliest inhabitants remains.
  • From about 300 BC to the 1700s AD the Bengal delta saw the development of writing, the Bengali language, religions and the rise and fall of states.
  • By the 1500s, the area was prosperous and even peasants had plenty to eat.

Political Past

  • For much of its history the area was simply called “Bengal” and was considered a part of India.
  • The last few centuries several foreign powers involved themselves with the area resulting in several wars.
  • The 20th century brought more wars, genocide, and political states. Bengal was under British rule from 1757–1947. It was a part of British India.
  • In 1947 East Bengal and West Pakistan separated from India and formed a new country called Pakistan.
  • But the east and west provinces were on either side of India and separated by 930 miles (1,500 km).
  • In 1949 the Bangladesh Awami League formed to favor separation between east and west Pakistan.
  • In 1955 East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan. Dacca was then the legislative capital of Pakistani Bengal provincial region.
  • The peoples of East Pakistan were mostly ethnic Bengalis who had a different language and culture to the people of western Pakistan.
  • These differences eventually led to the Bangladesh Liberation War. On 16 December 1971, Bangladesh gained independence, with the help of allied forces against West Pakistani forces.

Challenges

  • Despite many years of independence, Bangladesh is still a poor country and has problems with corruption and political troubles as the other country have.
  • Presently only more than half of the people can read and write.
  • Bangladesh has heavy cyclones and natural disasters, due to this many lives are often lost.
  • The country is one of the most densely populated in the world.
  • Cyclones are very common in the Bay of Bengal during the middle of the year, particularly in the south of country in areas like Sundarbans, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazaar, or in neighboring Myanmar and Republic of India.
  • Despite the many storms, Bangladesh does not have a very effective storm prevention system, and cyclones usually inflict heavy damage.

GDP

More Facts

Afghanistan

Graveyard of empires , it is land locked nation in south-central Asia . Surrounded by Pakistan , Turkmenistan , Iran , Uzbekistan , China and Tajikistan .

Afghanistan, if conquered, is a great possession of any empire. This is because, it lies along important trade routes from Europe to Asia. Many rulers have tried to do so, but
almost all have failed. Due its harsh terrain and conditions, many are unable to adapt or survive. Only the natives of the land are still quiet efficient in surviving.

Empires of Afghanistan

  • Durrani Empire
  • Hotak Dynasty
  • Mughal Empire
  • Maurya Empire
  • Ghaznavids
  • Ghurid Dynasty
  • Samanid Empire

Taliban

The Taliban emerged after the Afghan War in the mid 1990s. The Taliban started out as a band of scholars and religious students . They gained much support for their religious
following and promises of security. They soon over threw the government and established rule. By 2001, they controlled all, but a small region of Afghanistan.

USSR Invasion

Failed invasion with fall of USSR , leading to anarchy and faction groups taking over parts of Afghanistan with outside support.

Pakistan

Political Past

  • Our younger brother Pakistan was born 14 August 1947. Pakistan’s first Prime Minister was Liaqat Ali Khan, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah was their first Governor General.
  • Like other countries Pakistan also faced many difficulties after Independence but they coped up after gaining some help from UN and China.
  • The biggest difficulty was that in the early times was that the commanders – in – chief of the Pakistan army were Britishers so the refused to be commanded or listen to Mohammad Ali Jinnah.

Current Political Environment

  • In the present time Pakistan’s Prime Minister Imran Khan has resigned and the new Prime Minister is Shehbaaz Sharif.
  • Mian Muhammad Shehbaaz Sharif is the 23rd Prime Minister of Pakistan. He has been in office since 11 April 2022.

Political System

  • Pakistan has two Governance systems
  • Federal System
  • Parliamentary System

Demographics

  • Population               :          22.95 crores (2022)
  • Male Female ratio  :          51% Men and 48% women
  • Less than 1% are transgenders
  • Life expectancy     :           67 years
  • Area                         :           8,81,913 sq. km
  • Official Languages :           Urdu, English
  • Capital                     :           Islamabad

Economic Overview

  • Pakistan’s average GDP between 2010 – 2020 has been around 254.6 billion Dollars. Their Highest recorded GDP is 314.57 billion $ in 2018. Their GDP (Nominal) in 2021 was 347.74 billion $.
  • Their income per capita is projected to be 1250 $ in 2022 and their GDP per capita (Nominal) in 2021 was 1194 $.
  • In 2020 distribution of revenue sources was 23.13 % Agriculture, 17.72 % Industry, and 53.84 % was services