No-Code Airtable Integration

I have been using Airtable for quite sometime now at RecipeDabba where I work as part-time co-founder and coder ! My wife Rakshita Dwivedi , is the actual consumer of my work.

Almost every feature that is described by Airtable helps to power light weight tech-support that for my wife’s 21-day challenges in multiple formats that helps promote her healthy eating philopshy for kids. This became ever more significant during pandemic as she shifted bulk of her work online.

The diagram which you see below has been architected is powered using Airtable to create a workflow based architecture:

Schematic flow – copyright – Recipedabba

Airtable is a versatile cloud based sheet / database solution that helps automate large part of light weight process through

  • Multiple data types
  • Formulae
  • Blocks
  • Forms

I use all of the above in combination to do multiple pieces in the workflow like

  • Basics
    • Table Creations
    • Views
  • Data Grouping
    • Use of filters , group by
  • Analytics & Derivations
    • Roll-up fields [ very power full feature ]
    • Formulae to derive new fields [ this was another awesome feature ]
  • Data Entry
    • Forms
  • Blocks
    • De-Dupe Checks
    • Charts
Chart Presentation of Data

You can see above how the table data is quickly transformed into a basic chart visulization.

De-dupe block to remove duplicate enteries

An awesome block to remove duplicate entries from the system , with few clicks and configurations.

Snippets from the form view

Form rendition on mobile and desktop is very nie . Since we started to use this , the mothers [ who are primary collector of informaiton on behalf of kids who particpate ] , have found it easy to fill information and send it back to us!

Formulae and Applications

We can work on top of the data and apply many conditioanlities , thus allowing a flexible viewing of data in real time. Some of these things can take coding effort while connecting with analytics but , first level aggregation and analytics on daily basis has been very easy to perform in Airtable.

Overall for a upcoming or very small set-up Airtable . If you want to know more about how to do things in Airtable , feel free to ping me via comments and I will see if I can help !

Photo by David Travis on Unsplash

Habit Forming Platforms Part I

In my previous blog I had talked about Technology Evolution & touched upon how we have seen waves come in and go. I am converting that into a series of posts. First of the many posts related to Habit forming products & platforms. It captures my reflections around customer engagement mostly inspired from my readings of the book by Nir Eyal : HOOKED : How To Build Habit-Forming Products 

Nir Eyal is an Israeli-born American author, lecturer and investor known for his bestselling book, Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products.  He teaches and has expertise in areas of psychology, technology & business.

Everybody you meet , there is always a common thread on talks of how to improve customer engagement. I also do realize that we are trying to make sincere efforts to improve it all the time but still keep failing at it ! It is important to retrospect why this is the case and why do we keep losing engagement from our customers , not making the value proposition compelling enough to keep their attention live and fresh !

When I started reading the book , it became very clear to me how forming habits is imperative for the survival of many products. The current pandemic is a living example where the consumption patterns and habits are rapidly shaping to create survivability  , continuity , & pivoting away from the pandemic.

Back in 2001 , when I joined the industry internet was coming out of womb and world was still about rich desktop applications. Some of us would remember Power Builder front-ends on Windows ! People at that time would expect the technology on web to be just like that , comparison point of totally then divergent tool sets ! there was expectation that web should replicate every aspect of experience there by underscoring the other tranformational impact of internet.  It was a struggle on how to manage this transition with scores of teams involved trying to get this right .  the books offers a set of learning on how such situations should be addressed from a platforms stand-point.

  1. Companies need to change behavior by presenting users with an implicit choice between old and new.
  2. Platform services should be enjoyable for the sake of its customers.
  3. Building Platforms that are marginally better than others will never shake the old habits of customers , with broad adoption base.

A classic paper by John Gourville , a professor of marketing at Harvard Business School stipulates that

Many innovations fail because consumers irrationally overvalue old while companies irrationally overvalue the new.

As we build platforms

  • We need to be better by  miles to even stand a chance for customers to get hooked to us.
  • If the platform and products require high degree of behavior change , then they are doomed to fail even if the benefits of using the new product are clear and substantial !
  • We need dramatic improvement to our software design or restatement of problem to break the users out of their old routines. 

Quoting another example from the book is that of the QWERTY keyboard , which was developed in 1870s ! Simply putting this layout prevented users from jamming metal type bars of early machines. Many people have tried to since then reinvent keyboards and relate it to better ergonomics BUT QWERTY still remains a standard. How does it survive ?

For a simple reason that there is very high costs attached to changing the user behavior and challenge the stored value for it within its customers. The whole process of relearning and adopting stands little or very less chance of success!

Business heads , platform architects , designers & developers need to:

  • Engage
  • Gauge
  • Modify

to make important decisions regarding how platform should be developed to trigger engagement for customers to get hooked to it.

We will talk in upcoming blog posts more around how to challenge and change the stored value in customer’s mind in order to increase likelihood of adoption. In the mean time , if you have any feedback or comments , please do share !

 

Technology Stack Evolution

Technology paradigms have been making shift through decades. Trends are moving fast in terms of offering agile & pivoting solutions to problems at hand.

From an engineering stand point I have seen following evolutionary trend as waves:

IT Application Engineering → Product Engineering → Platform Engineering

With every wave our approach on how we conceptualize a solution from self-build to best-of-breed has gone through ideological change:

IT Application Engineering

  • Point-to-Point
  • Narrow audience. Build for one works for one

Product Engineering

  • Vertical in terms of features
  • Broader Audience . Build for features serves many
  • Customization may give birth to unmanageable monolith

Platform Engineering

  • Horizontal in terms of features
  • Wider Audience through knob controls on infrastructure seeding
  • Extensible through API design
  • Build on top of it and not within
  • Scales

With the above evolution & need for diversity in addressing different problem statements , one needs to keep following points in mind :

  1. Cookie-cutter approach does not work for diverse business models
  2. “Thought partners” are required to co-develop solutions , listen and adopt design inputs instead of simply being vendors
  3. Need to address data infrastructure, visualization and distributed microservices
  4. Concepts around minimum viable product help understand customers’ journey at a high level and evaluate the technology needs

At such a massive scale, it is always beneficial to develop a set of design principles that can guide your decision-making.

  1. Choose tech solutions made by challengers and visionaries with an extensible, API-first mindset
  2. Avoid legacy companies that might be lagging behind as they try to evolve their monolithic platforms.
  3. Do lot of proof-of-concepts that build hands-on understanding

Platform approach comes with certain amount of decentralization embedded in it for use and extension thus allowing elasticity in solution to serve diverse needs :

decentralization

When we start thinking on above lines it helps us to become creative across two major parameters:

  1. Expanding or Testing into a new market
  2. Expanding or Testing a new product line

Technology should enable this entrepreneurial spirit from start-up to scale across various sub-streams.

I hope this short read provides condensed view of how to evolve your technology stack.

Additional Reference

You can find more details and insights in my catch-up with  Segment.com , that got published on their blog last month on How Our Stack Evolved At Cimpress   . Thanks to Geoffrey Keating from Segment for taking the interview. 

 

Leadership Lessons From The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind

In my last blog I talked about new normal and how things have changed in post-COVID era.  The following blog para-phrases key leadership lessons I picked from the movie about William Kamkwamba The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind .

The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind is a movie based on William Kamkwamba’s life in Africa and how he saved his village. After just barely being able to go to school, the dry season hits, leaving his parents poor and their farm dead. Even though he technically still isn’t supposed to be at school, William sneaks in after the morning assembly as to go by unnoticed. He did this because he was inspired by the dynamo on his teacher’s bike. Eventually, he was discovered and kicked out of the school, but since his sister was secretly dating his teacher, William essentially blackmailed him into letting him use the library. Later, he makes a model windmill, and after a lot of persuasion, he got his father to sacrifice his bike so that he could make a larger windmill. This windmill fuels a well and keeps his family farm out of the dry season all year.

Once you give this movie a watch , there are aspects of leadership and execution William exhibits which are noteworthy in these testing times of pandemic and beyond.

Iterative approach to problem solving

William’s approach of solving the problem was iterative – a quality which was essential for him to be what he is today a – Malawian inventor . When you iterate & build prototypes then you get a sense of what you are working on and how it can be scaled. From paper to reality , do not forget to iterate else one never knows what is missing in the puzzle to solve the problem. William started from a book which inspired him to make the windmill , proved that it works to his friends and then took the moon-shot for to build the real windmill. In current pandemic vaccines will come through by doing more test and trial , one needs to keep iterating through it at a fast pace and collaborate globally.

Creativity In Frugality

Current pandemic crisis has shown that one does not have luxury of options and if you are not going to be creative , then it will be struggle from sustaining your meals , work & personal life. You can quickly go out of control & whether it is a drought in Malawi which forced William to think about a solution or current pandemic , it has same forbearance of the impact it has on humans. William is known to have constructed a wind turbine from scavenged parts.  You might be used to seeing something fancy but here is the image of William’s windmill. 

330px-William_Kamkwambas_new_windmill

Lead By Example

It is always important to do lead by example . One can have a idea but it is not relevant unless you prove it and show it that is a workable idea with some more effort. In William’s case, he researched how dynamos and windmills work before he tried to get hands on with them. Had he not done that, he would have been at risk of breaking the dynamo. It is important to be confident about your plan and how you intend to get it through with others. In current pandemic situation leaders in any capacity do not have to just be bearer of information but will have to embrace it themselves more than ever.

Team Is Important

When William Kamkwamba decided that it was time to get things to work, he had to make his friends understand that without them, he would be damned. You need a team that is on the same page as you are. It doesn’t matter if it’s only one person on the team! We have to have a team and work as a team for an effective response to the pandemic. Any kind of of discord will not help cure , save and protect lives !

Need To Be On The Problem

Persistence is important part of problem solving , if you loose heart then you will not be able to solve the problem. Iterations will bring heart-breaks and failures but one cannot put them in front of solving the real issue at hand. One needs to persuade different people at different levels in order to meet with a successful outcome. If William didn’t have the skill of persuasion, his father would never have let him use his bike. And he would have never persuaded his sister to convince his teacher to give him the dynamo.  In current crisis one needs to communicate broadly and effectively. It is also important to remain on top of the problem and organize the teams to deliver towards a successful outcome.

I hope these reflections are useful to my readers who are trying to tackle various types of issues at different levels. If you have any thoughts to share , please do not hesitate to write back to me or post a comment!

100% Online Household

The current pandemic has very visible impact & I am not judging but listing ( a list which will remain always incomplete…)

Digital Transformation & Inclusion

All the stats that drove the meaning of going digital would need a reset as they have generally considered people going digital if they ended up having a smartphone or a social media account. The pandemic is impacting every age-group and its digital interaction patterns.

Since 10th of March in India , my family has been at home operating three different digital world activities:

Self : Somebody who wants to solve problems on ground zero with three different displays , now question I why we have so many displays ! Everything just fits in on one laptop window and you can still work ! I have been cribbing about my time on road and the distances I cover; nature took care of it !

IMG_20200321_114118

Wife : She has been pursuing entrepreneurial journey since last three years and home has been her office with outbound activities like doing workshops. Now she finds intruded by me and her son( to whom I would come just in a minute ) ! Imagine office goers are now intruding Work For home(WFH) professionals. World has shifted from office to co-working & now WFH ! Her workshops have shifted to online Facebook live and next is moving them to Zoom.  One needs to constantly keep evaluating the new normal , it is not clear what it will be but there will be one for sure !

 

Screenshot_20200322-102252__01

Kid : My kid had to move into new session from 16th March , but due to pandemic crisis , we have full closure and an old world response would have been to wait for the situation to weather out , so that we can move on , but it does not seem the case at all! A school that has got a portal initiative under consideration for last couple of years went online in a week to a point that another corner of my house sees my kid taking online classes with his future teacher whom he has not yet met from new session physically. Pandemic needs a response that not only matches but abates its speed!

In today’s world a power-cut will get less quibbling as compared to a fiber cut as smart phones are able to only deliver small screen experience whilst serious business requires you more than that ! A hot-spot is no longer enough to be online !

Since the onset of cornoavirus, the definition of being online will change forever!

Picking New Skills

Screenshot_20200322-112612__01

Children are showing us the with new way to tackle the pandemic by going beyond just playing or watching TV. They are going back to the things that they wish to do but do not find time or are just getting bored doing same thing. We should learn from them and distract ourselves by picking up things we would want to do and have always found an alibi for not doing! Here my kid is trying to make wearable Lego articles ! So if you have to pick some book or skill now is the time !

 

Environment

Nature found its own way to deal with global warming problems. Humans are batting and professing hard to save the environment and here comes one invisible organism that turns the human race head-over-heels. Literally we are fighting for our own survival …picking threads from Darwin’s theory!

There have been reports of drop in AQI levels in various cities across the world where lock-down has been enforced.  Animals are taking field trips ! tables have turned & we are struggling to grapple with it! penguins

The Shedd Aquarium has been closed for six days due to coronavirus concerns, but there’s still some activity inside the iconic Chicago museum. Animals have been allowed to experience parts of the museum normally reserved for human guests. On Thursday, the “field trips” continued with a 5-year-old prehensile-tailed porcupine named Tyson. Animal care staff took Tyson to the Polar Play Zone to visit with the penguins in their own habitat.

At the end of the day nature will have last laugh , please let us not tinker with it !

Businesses

We are all in business of doing business and seems this norm has been attacked at core due to the pandemic. We are scrambling our response system like jets are scrambled for attack during a war. Automobile companies are making face masks (Read – Chinese Automaker BYD Is Now The Largest Producer Of Face Masks ) to Distilleries who have shifted from Gin to Disinfectants ! ( Read – From Gin To Disinfectants, Distillery Changes Business To Fight Virus )

These are unprecedented times and so the responses , it is hard to predict for how long and  to what stretch responses will have to be beyond anybody’s normal imagination. We will have think how we can help counter this pandemic beyond social distancing ( Read – Policy Action for a Healthy Global Economy ) . Who would have imagined that we are expected to change our response by the hour !

Businesses not only will have to survive but also innovate business model to look at the new normal !

Many things will change for life but we need to brace for it , and accept it. Some of our actions today will shape future and therefore being strong about those actions is important as well pertinent.

Please stay safe in these difficult times , educate others to stay safe !

Women don multiple hats !

This blog post is dedicated to women in our society on eve of International Women’s Day !

I personally have spent my schooling days either in all-boys or co-ed but never had imagined or experienced that we had a kind of divide existent where-in there is unconscious bias in social structures globally with respect to women; may be I was too naive to make that judgement! Here are some anecdotal stories that will build a perspective!

katherine-hanlon-bHhEJAXyFOg-unsplash

Photo by Katherine Hanlon on Unsplash

While I start to relate and reflect , it seems how my mother once used to play cricket in good old days but never made to a sporting career ( she ended up on academic side as a teacher beyond just being a house-maker , a wife , a guide to her children ) to present day where Shafali Verma is playing and achieving new heights as part of the India Women Cricket team. Just to remind my readers , Shafali used to dress up as a boy to get opportunity to play ( you can call that progress because my mother would not have even gotten away by dressing up like a boy )

Airports in India ( at least Mumbai where I live ) , offer facility of women cab drivers , but there are explicit counters for it and you are asked about your preference. Think how this signage creates a bias in your mind to have them as driver ? Honestly I have taken the offer to be driven by women cab drivers and found them to be far more careful as well having 10 times cleaner vehicle than their male counter-parts!

My wife who juggles between being a micropreneur and home-maker has made me discover a whole new world of self-empowered women , who are very well educated with double major and are trying to be creative in various fields and carry an identity of their own. You would state that well , is that not good ? . Yes it is but the support infrastructure that is needed for them to juggle their many roles , sometimes questions their effort and makes it transactional and asks how much do you even make by following your passion! ; whilst we should have celebrated the spirit of them being really entrepreneurial !

There are many more such stories that will raise fundamental reflections around gender diversity. Whilst I personally feel that my country which has historically seen very skewed empowerment numbers has taken simple steps to increase symbolism around empowerment ( Read article details ) , there are things that we can do to encourage larger cultural change around us.

We should :

  • Reject bias and remove it
  • Create empathy and walk-the-talk
  • Understand and acknowledge diversity as fact of life
  • Stop Judging
  • Celebrate success in diversity

Again to all the women out there ! Big Shout-out ! Happy International Women’s Day ! It’s on a Sunday so enjoy it to fullest !

“She believed she could, so she did.” –Unknown

Power of Letting Go & Leadership

Through second half of 2019 , I experienced lot of open ends around me. It was related to everything from not feeling well , to meeting deadlines & managing expectations. I had started to miss my runs and schedule. I was beginning to stress over all & how things were going to unfold.

Realization : It was time to retrospect!

I am still in early phases of this , but I wanted to share one of the dimensions that I am trying to put in place related to power in letting go ! I realized that balancing aspiration , controlling all tiny details and continuously structuring was leading to what I call over-indexing!  From what I have read and observed , continuity can only be maintained if we focus on what we are doing and when our part is done then shift it into background and / or move on to something else.

ankush-minda-VcD5OD2jDGA-unsplash

Photo by Ankush Minda on Unsplash

As leaders you might be thinking about tomorrow or yesterday as it pertains to the topic at hand but as you do so , keep following things in mind:

Having a Clear Goal

Be clear of the goal you are trying to reach and differentiate between what “snaps-you” versus what is the actual “pain”. Having that in mind allows one to goo little deep in defining goals and objectives that are more sustainable and avoids us to slip in chaos. This way you may be able to iterate for longer duration.

If this is not the case it will lead to many starts & stops thus creating higher involvement towards delivering purpose.

Operating Boundaries

For you as a leader to operate with more bandwidth given multi-tasking is necessary evil , setting operating boundaries and see that the network effect takes care to connect you to the goals with others around you. We talk about connected world but then suffer to operate with our personal baselines in attempt to move faster. Establish accountability & coach people to exercise their judgement.

Do not benchmark everything centered around yourself as leader. You will never be able to let go if that remains the case. 

Informal & short-run feedback

Improve your ability to give feedback to your network so that it improves its efficiency to collaborate & deliver results. Over sustained period of time feedback loops activate creativity at problem solving and thus aid towards a broader balancing act in the system.

As a person , you need to trust the network or else you would not get into cadence of letting go.

Coach To Lead

If by any stretch one deems himself to be in leadership position , the onus to find and groom people to lead is very pertinent. This is not very easy and will not come fast. It is time taking & involving exercise. If the network around you has to respond to future then we need more from within to lead and carry the weight.

It is matter of time , when you as a leader will start feeling the pain of not having focused on this , thus creating a pull back effect – an impediment towards our desire to let go.

Hope this helps current and future leaders to create a healthy balance that helps to practice the power of letting go . I am personally trying to put these in action as I realize life is a marathon and not 100-meters dash!

Welcome 2020!…#motivation

I did a reflective post in 2019 , where I summarized small things that can help us in pushing towards your personal and / or professional goals. Maintaining that tradition , I have come up with a set from 2019 now , that I would like to share with my readers. Even if any one of these help you push the dial , I will be a very happy person! & if you have your own reflections , then please do leave them as comments 🙂

 

Walk on water“Walk on water” by paullancaster1 is licensed under CC BY 2.0

For me year 2018 moving into 2019 was about #keepgoing and now from 2019 to 2020 is about #motivation. This could be for anything but it is necessary to have #motivation

#be-uncomfortable 

This one is my favorite , I guess over years my biggest driver for motivation!

If you think that you are spinning wheels everyday then talk to your peers or manager about this. For others who may think entitlements( work from home , comfortable office location etc.)  are necessary for best case outcome , should know that we are part of a large human experiment! . One should know that people who always retrospect whether they deserve all the privileges are the ones who shape the future of a mission as they get up every morning to better themselves and make themselves feel worthy.

So being uncomfortable is something you should embrace. Putting yourself in new and unfamiliar situations triggers a unique part of the brain that releases dopamine, nature’s make-you-happy chemical. This unique region of the brain is only activated when you see or experience completely new things.

#keep-yourself-updated

This one thing which is very important. Things around us are changing very fast. The change of pace is increasing and if you are not aware of landscape , do not read books , articles , then you will be totally out of context to start a conversation or hold up to one. It is very necessary tool that allows you to foster relationships , collaborate and connect in the age of distributed economy.

#take-care-of-people

Ben Horowitz is the cofounder of Andreessen Horowitz (A16Z) and one of Silicon Valley’s most respected and experienced entrepreneurs. In his book ‘The Hard Thing about Hard Things’ he shares his experience of being a founder-CEO and the hard decisions he has had to make.

One of the things he mentioned in the book struck me alot:-

TAKE CARE OF THE PEOPLE, THE PRODUCTS, AND THE PROFITS—IN THAT ORDER
― Ben Horowitz

#stay-fit

This is a carry over goal. I do not think this is going to go off my list 🙂 . Remaining fit is very important to have positive and open mind towards solving problems. It also reduces friction & improves efficiency for sustainable future & society.

Wishing all my readers a very happy and prosperous 2020 !

"Cranes by A-Runway of Haneda Airport" by ykanazawa1999 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Re-platforming – Lows & Highs

Evolution is all about looking forward – Gerard Pique

"Cranes by A-Runway of Haneda Airport" by ykanazawa1999 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

“Cranes by A-Runway of Haneda Airport” by ykanazawa1999 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

When you talk about re-platforming to an online business , it starts to give butterflies to everybody around you! The feeling is an obvious one given that it is not going to be straight forward and will touch everybody in the organization. A re-platforming phase will cause strain on internal resources and the impact to business is also not ruled out, as one starts to touch the very foundation which it uses to conduct it’s business operations.

First reflections always would be to label re-platform as a bad idea but in reality it is a necessity not only to keep the stack fresh and adopt the next wave of tech but also show doors to huge opportunities that might be in front of us.

While many would view global expansion or launching to new marketplaces as an exciting business evolution, re-platforming also needs to be treated as a first class citizen for its successful outcome. Re-platforming is not migration or a parity generator for past but a re-look into where the market is, where the business fits in the current (and future) landscape and reviewing everything from customer experience to technology. For example being on mobile was considered competitive advantage but now it is part of standard behavior. As new age start-ups come into vogue and adopt newest stacks , things that were considered high barrier to tech adoption have become default offering. Continue reading

Platforms & More…

It has been time since I shared any thoughts. Have been irregular for sames reasons always .. caught in web of work and finding time for everything ! I tend to forget always that “yes I can do anything but I cannot do everything !” . Enough of self-infliction , will try to get back into groove and be honest to myself to do things which I like doing !

I am an avid read of Founding Fuel(who have the vision of creating  playbook of entrepreneurship through multi-channel knowledge sharing using their esteemed network of thought leaders) . While reading one of their articles from last week , I found it interesting enough for sharing it as blog post with some personal retrospection on it.

Read On…

Roughly last week on Founding Fuel an article was published about how much control is too much control for a platform. This article talks about some interesting history in early 1930s of how one the Bell Lab engineers Clarence Hickman developed a working model of answering machine but the underlying technology around magnetic storage and the research around it was shutdown by Bell Labs due to reasons related to people’s perception in relation to its usage and ramifications thereof on Bell Labs future ( Remember that Bell Labs remains most prolific entity in world that would have produced most Nobel laureates outside university / academia infrastructure as private company !) ( refer Tim Wu On the Master Switch )

Another powerful example is related to guiding principles of TCP/IP by Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn aimed at interconnecting computers. It had no central control and does not offer any specific optimization for an application. an extreme end of platform design

Above and many other examples mentioned in the article relate to following facts:

  • Businesses heavily control platform strategy
  • Controls are often misguided with too much or / less making a platform subservient to stakeholders or / negative usage
  • Enterprises struggle with definition of platform success
  • Enterprises struggle to see if the platform is balancing act for every stakeholder
  • & Platform itself does not know when it has failed on above parameters!

Now-a-days technology has made it possible to create a platform vision as a foundation to any business idea , but its economic model definition remains conflicting and suited to business itself on how it sees or visualizes the same but it is important to keep referring to core definitions of a platform business.

A platform is a business model that

  • Creates value by facilitating exchanges between interdependent groups. To make these exchanges happen, platforms harness and create scalable networks or users and resources.
  • Platform business needs to facilitate transactions and boost efficiency from the perspective of supply, demand or supply-demand relation.
  • A platform business, should ensure that transactions are carried out efficiently and profitably.

For a platform business, the essence is to ensure that transactions are carried out efficiently and profitably.  The key, undoubtedly, lies in whether a platform can deliver increased transaction efficiency from the perspective of supply, demand or supply-demand relation?

If a business can manage that, it will be able to rise above the fierce competition , ensure effective guardrails with inversion of control , and eventually grow bigger. When it grows bigger in terms of economic value than the creators itself , it starts to become a platform .